Aside from merely knowing how to write code, every professional programmer should master five key tools of the trade:
- Distributed version control system (DVCS; e.g., Git)
- An integrated development environment (IDE; e.g., Eclipse)
- Command line tools (e.g., GNU tools, bash, vim)
- Build systems and dependency management (e.g., Maven)
- Debugging and debuggers
Programmers who really understand all of these tools will accomplish their goals thousands of times faster than those who do not.
If you dabble in programming, you may not have time to dive in to all of the above, and that is OK! But if your aspiration is to be a professional programmer, you owe it to yourself to cultivate the three great virtues of a programmer. Computers exist to automate things. You have better things to do with your life than tedious, repetitive tasks all day long. Automation is always superior. (In all seriousness: it is often worth the time.)
The links above are geared toward learning to develop in Java, but the skills are ultimately very similar for other software disciplines such as web programming.
Here are some other important considerations regarding software development on LOCI projects.
At LOCI, our rule of thumb is to make projects open source. There have to be good reasons to do otherwise (e.g., secrets included in the code). As much as we can, we aim to make reusable software and tools at LOCI, which means both open source and open process. This fosters collaboration and scientific exchange, as well as interdisciplinary projects. In short: open source is good for science.
Since most of our software is open source, we collaborate with other scientists and groups quite often, e.g. via forums and mailing lists. It is good practice, therefore, to subscribe to the relevant mailing lists as first action when starting as a developer at LOCI. We strongly favor all collaboration and communication take place in public, even if that communication is between two members of the same physical group. Asking a question, and receiving an answer, in a private mail benefits no one but yourself, whereas discussing issues in public informs and benefits the entire worldwide community.
Reusable software needs to be developed in a reliable manner, with very few, well-defined moments of backwards-compatibility breaking API changes (e.g. when a public, protected or package-local Java class, interface, method or field changes the name or other parts of its signature). We follow the best practice called Semantic Versioning for that reason: version numbers consist of a major version number (reflecting backwards-incompatible changes), a minor version (reflecting backwards-compatible API changes) and a micro version (reflecting bug fixes only).
Source Code Management: Git
When developing code, even as a single developer, we use Git to manage source code revisions. It serves us well for the following purposes:
- fixing regressions
We commit and push our changes at least daily, to avoid losing work. See the SCM history section of the ImageJ coding style guide for further details, and the ImageJ site's Using Git page for tips and tricks.
In particular, we aim to inspect all changes before committing and we aim to never leave uncommitted changes at the end of a work day.
To inspect the changes before committing, simply call
git diff, or use GitHub Desktop. It is a good idea to separate pure style fixes (such as indentation fixes, or spelling corrections) from functional changes: it is too easy for bugs to hide in overly complex commits otherwise.
To avoid leaving changes uncommitted at the end of a work day, the recommended practice is to create a temporary branch and commit everything as a WIP ("work in progress") commit (
git checkout -b tmp && git add -A . && git commit -m wip && git push origin HEAD). The next day, the changes can be transported back into the
master branch by calling
git fetch origin tmp && git cherry-pick -n tmp && git push origin :tmp. If the Git commands given in this paragraph seem too complex, or if it is not obvious to you how they work, or what they do, it is probably a good idea to go through GitHub's 15-minute tutorial on Git right now.
Meaningful commit messages
It is a good practice to look at the diff before committing. By doing that, one can avoid conflating different changes into a single commit, e.g. have one crucial bugfix hidden between a thousand lines that only fix the formatting.
We strive to document the intention and the motivation behind patches in good commit messages. In general, it is safe to assume that the reader does not want to read anything that can be deduced easily from looking at the diff. Instead, we aim to provide the background information, such as: who reported a bug? who had the cunning idea to solve it that way? which way seemed to be obvious, but did not work, and why? It is probably a good idea to read a little in the commit messages of our projects to get a good feel how to do things.
While bug fixes are usually contained in individual commits that are directly pushed to the master branch once tested and verified, more involved features are developed on topic branches. We rewrite history in such topic branches extensively before merging, in order to provide a clean and readable commit history that serves both as documentation to others as well as the developers themselves (after six months, it is hard to remember details).
GitHub (repositories, issues, pull requests)
All of our open source code lives in Git repositories on the social coding site GitHub. GitHub offers a vast array of useful resources, such as a 15-minute tutorial on Git, tools for collaborating, extensive guides, issue trackers, websites, and wikis. It even comes with applications for Windows and MacOSX making it a breeze to work with GitHub.
Unit Testing (JUnit)
Every reliable and reusable project needs to ensure that the basic functionality on which third-party software might rely works, and keeps working. The easiest way to guarantee that is to write unit tests. For Java projects, we use JUnit—unless the project already uses another unit testing framework.
It is essential that unit tests run quickly. It is okay to take up to a few seconds if it is really crucial to test this particular functionality, but it is not okay to take minutes. The longer a test takes, the less often it is executed, diminishing its value greatly. In most cases, long-running cases can easily be reduced in size without reducing the number of exercised code paths.
For example, when testing an image processing filter, it is typically enough to test it on a 16x16 image auto-generated from a two-dimensional sine wave and then verifying the output values only at, say, 8 different locations against known-good values. There is no need to use a full-blown 1024x1024 image obtained using a confocal microscope. Using auto-generated data for testing also avoids the repository bloat typical of projects adding test data into the same repository as code (the test data can easily occupy 100-10,000x as much space as the code itself in such cases).
Continuous Integration (Jenkins)
Unit tests are useful only if they are run. When developing, it is all-too-easy to forget, and regressions sometimes result from updates in dependencies. Therefore, we have a Jenkins server (so-called "continuous integration" server, or "robot butler" of sorts) whose duty it is to monitor source code repositories, and to compile and run the tests whenever anything changes. Jenkins, being public, is therefore a very good health report of our projects.
Dependency Management (Maven)
When developing Java projects, we rely on Maven for dependency management. This is particularly important due to our focus on reusable software: proper versioning and easy upgrading to newer versions is essential due to the highly modular nature of our projects. The benefit is obvious: we maintain hundreds of software components with only three full-time developers.
Making a project Maven-compatible is very easy: put the source code into
src/main/java/, additional resources required by the source code into
src/main/resources/, create the
pom.xml file containing the project description, and you're good to go. Unit tests should not be bundled in the resulting .jar file (called "artifact" by Maven), hence there is a different location for the tests' source code (
src/test/java/) and the tests' resources (
A good example to follow is the minimal ImageJ 1.x plugin project.
Use Eclipse unless you are a NetBeans/IntelliJ expert
Java projects should be developed with the help of an Integrated Development Environment. It not only helps with setting up a project ready to be developed, but also helps with powerful tools such as code completion, convenient Javadoc display, and refactoring.
At LOCI, we use Eclipse extensively. Therefore it makes most sense to use Eclipse for developing Java code, unless you are already a real maven in another Maven-compatible tool like NetBeans or IntelliJ.
We also work on the command line extensively and use editors like vim and emacs. Such tools complement IDEs very well, but cannot fully replace them in terms of productivity.
Setting up your system
To set up your system, you will:
- Install Homebrew: http://brew.sh/
- Open a Terminal
- Install Git: brew install git
- Install Maven: brew install maven
- Install mr: brew install myrepos
Then you can start cloning source code:
- mkdir -p code/ctrueden
- cd code/ctrueden
- git clone git:github.com/ctrueden/dotfiles
- cd dotfiles
- bash config-links.sh
And now your shell is 'supercharged'. This sets up all kinds of goodies: bash updates, zsh updates, better vim stuff, etc.
Then you can get ALL the code:
- cd ~/code
- mr up
And it will start cloning up a storm.
- mr up